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**Khan Academy**

Ancient Greek catapults and medical packs

Concussions in professional athletes

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**MCAT Official Prep (AAMC)**

Topic: Translational Motion

Average velocity is defined as the change in position (or displacement) over the time of travel while instantaneous velocity is the velocity of an object at a single point in time and space as calculated by the slope of the tangent line.

In everyday usage, the terms “**speed**” and “**velocity”** are used interchangeably. In physics, however, they are distinct quantities. Speed is a scalar quantity and has only magnitude. Velocity, on the other hand, is a vector quantity and so has both magnitude and direction. This distinction becomes more apparent when we calculate average speed and velocity. **Average speed** is calculated as the distance traveled over the total time of travel. In contrast, **average velocity** is defined as the change in *position* (or **displacement**) over the total time of travel.

Typically, motion is not with constant velocity nor speed. While driving in a car, for example, we continuously speed up and slow down. A graphical representation of our motion in terms of distance vs. time, therefore, would be more variable or “curvy” rather than a straight line, indicating motion with a **constant velocity** as shown below.

To calculate the speed of an object from a graph representing constant velocity, all that is needed is to find the slope of the line; this would indicate the change in distance over the change in time. However, changing velocity it is not as straightforward.

Since our velocity is constantly changing, we can estimate velocity in different ways. One way is to look at our instantaneous velocity, represented by one point on our curvy line of motion graphed with distance vs. time. In order to determine our velocity at any given moment, we must determine the slope at that point. To do this, we find a line that represents our velocity in that moment, shown graphically in. That line would be the line tangent to the curve at that point. If we extend this line, we can easily calculate the displacement of distance over time and determine our velocity at that given point. The velocity of an object at any given moment is the slope of the tangent line through the relevant point on its x vs. t graph.

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**Practice Questions **

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**Khan Academy**

Ancient Greek catapults and medical packs

Concussions in professional athletes

** **

**MCAT Official Prep (AAMC)**

Sample Test C/P Section Passage 2 Question 8

Practice Exam 3 C/P Section Passage 2 Question 8

Practice Exam 3 C/P Section Question 48

Key Points

• In everyday usage, the terms “speed” and “velocity” are used interchangeably. In physics, however, they are distinct quantities. Speed is a scalar quantity and has only magnitude. Velocity, on the other hand, is a vector quantity and so has both magnitude and direction. Average velocity can be calculated by determining the total displacement divided by the total time of travel.

• The average velocity of an object does not tell us anything about what happens to it between the starting point and ending point.

• Average velocity is different from average speed in that it considers the direction of travel and the overall change in position.

• When velocity is constantly changing, we can estimate our velocity by looking at instantaneous velocity.

• Instantaneous velocity is calculated by determining the slope of the line tangent to the curve at the point of interest.

• Instantaneous velocity is similar to determining how many meters the object would travel in one second at a specific moment.

Key Terms

**Velocity: **A vector quantity that denotes the rate of change of position with respect to time, or a speed with a directional component.

** Speed**: A scalar quantity that has only magnitude.

**Average velocity**: displacement over a period of time.

**Displacement**: change of position

**Constant Velocity**: An object moving with constant speed in a constant direction

**Instantaneous**: (As in velocity)—occurring, arising, or functioning without any delay; happening within an imperceptibly brief period of time.

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