Topic: The Periodic Table Classification Of Elements Into Groups By Electronic Structure

The representative elements are the A elements found in groups IA – VIIIA.

Representative elements have their valence electrons in orbitals of either s or p shells. The roman numeral and the letter designation determine the electron configuration. As an example, an element in Group VA has five valence electrons with the configuration s2p3.

Non-representative elements include the transition elements, which have valence electrons in the s and d shells, and the lanthanide and actinide series, which have valence electrons in the s and f shells. They have unexpected electron configurations. As an example, chromium and copper are 4s13d5 and 4s13d10 respectively.

Key Points

• Representative elements include the s and p block

• Non-representative elements exist in the d and block

• They often have unexpected electron configurations

Key Terms

electron configuration: the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule in atomic or molecular orbitals

roman numeral: any of the symbols used in a system of numerical notation based on the ancient Roman system

valence electron: an outer shell electron that can participate in chemical bonds

transition elements: any of the set of metallic elements occupying a central block (Groups IVB–VIII, IB, and IIB, or 4–12) in the periodic table

actinide: a series of elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium

lanthanide: consists of the 14 elements, with atomic numbers 58 through 71, that follow lanthanum on the periodic table of elements.

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