Topic: The Periodic Table Classification Of Elements Into Groups By Electronic Structure

Metals and non-metals differ in chemical and physical properties.

Metals

Metals are found on the left side and in the middle of the period table. With the exception of mercury, which is a liquid under standard conditions, metals are shiny solids. Metals have high melting points and densities. They are highly malleable and have high ductility. They have low effective nuclear charge, low electronegativity, a large atomic radius, small ionic radius, and low ionization energy. Metals have the ability to easily give up electrons. They are good conductors of heat and electricity because their valence electrons are free to move.

Non-metals

Non-metals are found on the upper right side of the period table. Non-metals have high ionization energy, high electron affinity, and high electronegativity. They have small atomic radii and large ionic radii. They are poor conductors of heat and electricity. They do not easily give up electrons.


Key Points

• Metals are solids under standard conditions, except for mercury

• Metals have high melting points and densities

• Metals are highly malleable and have high ductility

• Metals have low effective nuclear charge, low electronegativity, and low ionization energy

• Metals have a large atomic radius and small ionic radius

• Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity

• Non-metals are poor conductors of heat and electricity because they do not easily give up electrons

• Non-metals have high ionization energy, high electron affinity, and high electronegativity

• Non-metals have small atomic radii and large ionic radii


Key Terms

malleability: the ability of a metal to be hammered into shapes

ductility: the ability to be pulled or drawn into wires

valence electron: an outer shell electron that can participate in chemical bonds

ionization energy: the energy required to remove an electron from the valence shell of a gaseous atom

electron affinity: the energy change that occurs when an atom gains an electron

electronegativity: a measure of the ability of an atom to attract the electrons in a bond

oxidation state: a number assigned to an element in chemical combination which represents the number of electrons lost

atomic radius: the average distance between a nucleus and its outermost electron

ionic radii: the average distance from the center of the nucleus to the edge of its electron cloud

standard conditions: are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements defined as a temperature of 273.15 K (0 °C, 32 °F) and an absolute pressure of exactly 1 atm

melting point: the temperature at which an element will melt

effective nuclear charge: the attractive positive charge of nuclear protons acting on valence electrons



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