Section Bank P/S Section Passage 7 Question 57
Section Bank P/S Section Passage 8 Question 62
• There are several significant types of social behavior found in animals including foraging behavior, mating behavior and mate choice, game theory, altruism, and inclusive fitness.
• Foraging behavior is the set behaviors through which animals obtain food. Animals optimize the energy expenditure involved in obtaining it. Social behavior can increase foraging efficiency by allowing knowledge of effective techniques to be passed from individual to individual or by allowing the community to achieve what an individual alone could not.
• Mating behavior is the behavior surrounding the propagation of a species through reproduction. Natural selection is particularly influential in the process by which one member of a species chooses another individual with which to reproduce. Mate choice is determined by a number of factors, including attempts to judge the genetic qualities, overall health, and potential parenting skills of prospective mates.
• Altruism consists of behaviors that are disadvantageous to the individual acting, but confer benefits to other members of its social group.
• Inclusive fitness describes overall fitness (an individual’s level of success at passing on its genes) by considering not only the individual’s own progeny but also the offspring of its close relatives. When the concept of fitness is expanded to include the offspring of relatives, the evolutionary benefit of altruism becomes apparent.
• Many scientists apply game theory to understand and mode the decision making processes that govern competition, altruism, and other social behaviors. Interactions between organisms can be modeled as a multiplayer game in which each player carries out competitive or cooperative strategies that maximize evolutionary success (i.e. fitness). The success of an individual depends no only on his or her own strategy but also on the strategies and decisions of the other “players.”
Foraging behavior: the set behaviors through which animals obtain food
Mating behavior: the behavior surrounding the propagation of a species through reproduction
Natural selection: a process in which individual organisms or phenotypes that possess favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce
Mate choice: one of the primary mechanisms under which evolution can occur. It is characterized by a “selective response by animals to particular stimuli” which can be observed as behavior
Altruism: consists of behaviors that are disadvantageous to the individual acting, but confer benefits to other members of its social group
Inclusive fitness: the ability of an individual organism to pass on its genes to the next generation, taking into account the shared genes passed on by the organism’s close relatives
Game theory: the use of mathematical models to represent complex decision making in which the actions of other group members must be taken into account