MCAT Content / Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis And The Pentose Phosphate Pathway / Net Molecular And Energetic Results Of Respiration Processes 2

Net molecular and energetic results of respiration processes

Topic: Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis And The Pentose Phosphate Pathway

Cellular respiration is the enzymatic breakdown of glucose (C6H12O6) in the presence of oxygen to produce ATP.

Three Stages of Cellular Respiration

Three stages occur during cellular respiration; glycolysis, citric acid or TCA cycle, and the electron transport system. The net equation for cellular respiration is as follows:

C6H12O+ 6O2 –> 6 CO2 + 6H2O + 38 ATP

Glycolysis is a ten-step process that occurs in the cytoplasm. Each molecule of glucose is converted into two units of pyruvic acid. Each glucose molecule yields 2 ATP and 2 NADH.

The citric acid cycle or TCA cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. Each glucose molecule that enters the TCA cycle through acetyl CoA produces 2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2 FADH2

The electron transport chain occurs in the inner mitochondrial matrix. Using the electrons of the NADH and FADH2 from the TCA cycle, they give up energy used to fuel H+ ions to flow through the mitochondrial membrane. Each glucose molecule produces 34 ATP.

Practice Questions

Khan Academy

MCAT Official Prep (AAMC)

Practice Exam 2 B/B Section Passage 2 Question 7

Key Points

• The three stages of cellular respiration are glycolysis, citric acid or TCA cycle, and the electron transport chain

• The net equation of cellular respiration is: C6H12O6+6O26CO2+6H2O+38 ATP

• Glycolysis yields 2 ATP and 2 NADH

• Citric acid or TCA cycle produces 2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2 FADH2

• The electron transport chain produces 34 ATP

Key Terms

glycolysis: the cellular metabolic pathway of the simple sugar glucose to yield pyruvic acid and ATP as an energy source

glucose: a simple monosaccharide with a molecular formula of C6H12O6

adenosine triphosphate: a multifunctional nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme

NADH: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) carrying two electrons and bonded with a hydrogen (H) ion

TCA cycle: a series of enzymatic reactions that occurs in all aerobic organisms to generate energy

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