Genetic makeup and environmental factors have a large role in determining human behavior.
The influence of genes on behavior has been well established in the scientific community. To a large extent, who we are and how we behave is a result of our genetic makeup. While genes do not determine behavior, they play a huge role in what we do and why we do it.
Behavioral genetics studies heritability of behavioral traits, and it overlaps with genetics, psychology, and ethology (the scientific study of human and animal behavior). Genetics plays a large role in when and how learning, growing, and development occurs. For example, although environment has an effect on the walking behavior of infants and toddlers, children are unable to walk at all before an age that is predetermined by their genome. However, while the genetic makeup of a child determines the age range for when he or she will begin walking, environmental influences determine how early or late within that range the event will actually occur.
Classical, or Mendelian, genetics examines how genes are passed from one generation to the next, as well as how the presence or absence of a gene can be determined via sexual reproduction. Gregor Mendel is known as the father of the field of genetics, and his work with plant hybridization (specifically pea plants) demonstrated that certain traits follow particular patterns. This is referred to as the law of Mendelian inheritance.
Genes can be manipulated by selective breeding, which can have an enormous impact on behavior. For example, some dogs are bred specifically to be obedient, like golden retrievers; others are bred to be protective, like German shepherds. In another example, Seymour Benzer discovered he could breed certain fruit flies with others to create distinct behavioral characteristics and change their circadian rhythms.
Behavior can influence genetic expression in humans and animals by activating or deactivating genes. Behavior can have an impact on genetic makeup, even as early as the prenatal period. It is important to understand the implications of behavior on genetic makeup in order to reduce negative environmental and behavioral influences on genes.
EEG and PET scans have the ability to show psychologists how certain behaviors trigger reactions in the brain. This has led to the discovery of specific genes, such as those that influence addictive behaviors. A variety of behaviors have been shown to influence gene expression, including—but not limited to—drug use, exposure to the elements, and dietary habits.
Prenatal exposure to certain substances, particularly drugs and alcohol, has detrimental effects on a growing fetus. The most serious consequences of prenatal drug or alcohol exposure involve newborn addiction and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Fetal alcohol syndrome affects both physical and mental development, damaging neurons within the brain and often leading to cognitive impairment and below-average weight. Exposure to drugs and alcohol can also influence the genes of children and adults. Addiction is thought to have a genetic component, which may or may not be caused by a genetic mutation resulting from drug or alcohol use.
Temperature exposure can affect gene expression. For example, in Himalayan rabbits, the genetic expressions of fur, skin, and eyes are regulated by temperature. In the warm areas of the rabbits’ bodies, the fur lacks pigment due to gene inactivity and turns white. On the extremities of the rabbits’ bodies (nose, ears and feet) the gene is activated and therefore pigmented (usually black).
Light exposure also influences genetic expression. Thomas Hunt Morgan performed an experiment in which he exposed some caterpillars to light and kept others in darkness. Those exposed to certain light frequencies had corresponding wing colors when they became butterflies (for example, red produced vibrant wing color, whereas blue led to pale wings). Darkness resulted in the palest wing color, leading him to conclude that light exposure influenced the genes of the butterflies. In this manner a caterpillar’s behavior can directly affect gene expression; a caterpillar that actively seeks out light will appear different as a butterfly than one that avoids it.
Lack of proper nutrition in early childhood is yet another factor that can lead to the alteration of genetic makeup. Human children who lack proper nutrition in the first three years of life tend to have more genetic problems later in life, such as health issues and problems with school performance.
Exposure also influences genetic expression. Thomas Hunt Morgan performed an experiment in which he exposed some caterpillars to light and kept others in darkness. Those exposed to certain light frequencies had corresponding wing colors when they became butterflies (for example, red produced vibrant wing color, whereas blue led to pale wings). Darkness resulted in the palest wing color, leading him to conclude that light exposure influenced the genes of the butterflies. In this manner a caterpillar’s behavior can directly affect gene expression; a caterpillar that actively seeks out light will appear different as a butterfly than one that avoids it.
Gene expression is a highly complex, regulated process that begins with DNA transcribed into RNA, which is then translated into protein. Each somatic cell in the body generally contains the same DNA. A few exceptions include red blood cells, which contain no DNA in their mature state, and some immune system cells that rearrange their DNA while producing antibodies. In general, however, the genes that determine whether you have green eyes, brown hair, and how fast you metabolize food are the same in the cells in your eyes and your liver, even though these organs function quite differently.
Whereas each cell shares the same genome and DNA sequence, each cell does not turn on, or express, the same set of genes. Each cell type needs a different set of proteins to perform its function. Therefore, only a small subset of proteins is expressed in a cell that constitutes its proteome. For the proteins to be expressed, the DNA must be transcribed into RNA and the RNA must be translated into protein. In a given cell type, not all genes encoded in the DNA are transcribed into RNA or translated into protein because specific cells in our body have specific functions. Specialized proteins that make up the eye (iris, lens, and cornea) are only expressed in the eye, whereas the specialized proteins in the heart (pacemaker cells, heart muscle, and valves) are only expressed in the heart. At any given time, only a subset of all of the genes encoded by our DNA are expressed and translated into proteins. The expression of specific genes is a highly-regulated process with many levels and stages of control. This complexity ensures the proper expression in the proper cell at the proper time.
To understand how gene expression is regulated, we must first understand how a gene codes for a functional protein in a cell. The process occurs in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, just in slightly different manners.
Prokaryotic organisms are single-celled organisms that lack a defined nucleus; therefore, their DNA floats freely within the cell cytoplasm. To synthesize a protein, the processes of transcription (DNA to RNA) and translation (RNA to protein) occur almost simultaneously. When the resulting protein is no longer needed, transcription stops. Thus, the regulation of transcription is the primary method to control what type of protein and how much of each protein is expressed in a prokaryotic cell. All of the subsequent steps occur automatically. When more protein is required, more transcription occurs. Therefore, in prokaryotic cells, the control of gene expression is mostly at the transcriptional level.
Eukaryotic cells, in contrast, have intracellular organelles that add to their complexity. In eukaryotic cells, the DNA is contained inside the cell’s nucleus where it is transcribed into RNA. The newly-synthesized RNA is then transported out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm where ribosomes translate the RNA into protein. The processes of transcription and translation are physically separated by the nuclear membrane; transcription occurs only within the nucleus, and translation occurs only outside the nucleus within the cytoplasm. The regulation of gene expression can occur at all stages of the process. Regulation may occur when the DNA is uncoiled and loosened from nucleosomes to bind transcription factors (epigenetics), when the RNA is transcribed (transcriptional level), when the RNA is processed and exported to the cytoplasm after it is transcribed (post-transcriptional level), when the RNA is translated into protein (translational level), or after the protein has been made (post-translational level).
• Classical, or Mendelian, genetics examines how genes are passed from one generation to the next. Behavioral genetics examines the role of genetic and environmental influences on animal (including human) behavior.
• There are many ways to manipulate genetic makeup, such as cross-breeding to achieve certain characteristics.
• It is difficult to ascertain whether genetics (“nature”) or the environment (“nurture”) has a stronger influence on behavior. It is generally believed that human behavior is determined by complex interactions of both nature and nurture.
• Drug use, environmental exposure, and eating habits have all been linked to changes in gene expression. While some such influences are harmless or even beneficial, others can be extremely detrimental. Researchers hope to identify these behaviors and their effects.
• EEG and PET scans show psychologists how certain behaviors trigger reactions in the brain, which can lead to the discovery of certain determinant genes, such as those that influence addictive behaviors.
• Exposure of a fetus to alcohol and drugs can lead to a host of developmental problems after birth, the most serious of which is fetal alcohol syndrome.
• Every cell within an organism shares the same genome (with exceptions, i.e. mature red blood cells), but has variation between its proteomes.
• Gene expression involves the process of transcribing DNA into RNA and then translating RNA into proteins.
• Gene expression is a highly complex and tightly-regulated process.
• Prokaryotic gene expression is primarily controlled at the level of transcription.
• Eukaryotic gene expression is controlled at the levels of epigenetics, transcription, post-transcription, translation, and post-translation.
• Prokaryotic gene expression (both transcription and translation) occurs within the cytoplasm of a cell due to the lack of a defined nucleus; thus, the DNA is freely located within the cytoplasm.
• Eukaryotic gene expression occurs in both the nucleus (transcription) and cytoplasm (translation).
• Genetic variation is an important force in evolution as it allows natural selection to increase or decrease frequency of alleles already in the population.
• Genetic variation can be caused by mutation (which can create entirely new alleles in a population), random mating, random fertilization, and recombination between homologous chromosomes during meiosis (which reshuffles alleles within an organism’s offspring).
• Genetic variation is advantageous to a population because it enables some individuals to adapt to the environment while maintaining the survival of the population.
behavioral genetics: The field of study that examines the role of genetics in animal (including human) behavior; often involves the nature-versus-nurture debate.
ethology: The scientific study of human and animal behavior.
genetics: The branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics, particularly chromosomes and DNA.
gene: A unit of heredity; a segment of DNA or RNA that is transmitted from one generation to the next and that carries genetic information such as the sequence of amino acids for a protein.
fetal alcohol syndrome: Any of a spectrum of birth defects resulting from excessive alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy.
somatic: part of, or relating to the body of an organism
genome: the cell’s complete genetic information packaged as a double-stranded DNA molecule
proteome: the complete set of proteins encoded by a particular genome
epigenetics: the study of heritable changes caused by the activation and deactivation of genes without any change in DNA sequence
nucleosome: any of the subunits that repeat in chromatin; a coil of DNA surrounding a histone core
genetic diversity: the level of biodiversity, refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species
crossing over: the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes
phenotypic variation: variation (due to underlying heritable genetic variation); a fundamental prerequisite for evolution by natural selection
genetic variation: variation in alleles of genes that occurs both within and among populations