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Aldehydes and Ketones: Description

Written by Sabina Cabrera on Mar 26, 2020

Aldehydes and Ketones are functional groups in organic chemistry that contain a carbonyl group, represented by the double bond between carbon and oxygen, C=O. When naming compounds, aldehyde nomenclature follows -al and -aldehyde suffixes, and ketones follow and oxo- prefix, and the -one suffix.

Due to the polarized nature of the carbon-oxygen double bond, the carbonyl is a desirable trait in functional groups due to the electron-rich oxygen and immediately attached electron-poor carbon. In aldehydes and ketones, the carbonyl is present, as circled below.

When naming compounds with an aldehyde group present, it is appropriate to replace the ending of a compound with -al (for example, methanal). In groups where there is a common name or parent chain, the suffix -aldehyde is also used (for example, formaldehyde).

When naming compounds with a ketone group present, it is appropriate to replace the ending of a compound with -one (for example, propanone). In groups where there is a common name or parent chain, the suffix -aldehyde is also used (for example, diphenyl ketone).

When naming compounds with both an aldehyde and ketone group present, it is appropriate to assign the ketone group with an oxo- prefix and to assign the aldehyde with the -al suffix.

Key Takeaways:

  • When naming compounds, aldehyde nomenclature follows -al and -aldehyde suffixes, and ketones follow and oxo- prefix, and the -one suffix.
  • When naming compounds with both an aldehyde and ketone group present, it is appropriate to assign the ketone group with an oxo- prefix and to assign the aldehyde with the -al suffix.

Key Terms:

  • Polarized: separation of positive and negative charges. In the case of carbonyl, the more negative charges go toward the oxygen and the more positive charges go toward the carbon.

 



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